Page last updated Thu 04 May 2017


Use the links to navigate the hierarchy of invertebrate classification.

  Subkingdom Parazoa

Phylum Porifera (sponges)

    Class Demospongiae -- Wisconsin!
    Class Calcarea
    Class Hexactinellida
    Class Homoscleromorpha

Taxon Information

The Phylum Porifera has been reported (or is assumed) to occur in fresh waters. This taxon has been reported from Wisconsin.

(These statements were generated automatically from the WInvertebrates database.)

Literature Records

  • Porifera, "4 classes of living species, 4 classes of fossil species" (Hooper et al., 2011).
  • Porifera, "8,346 species" (Zhang, 2011).
  • Porifera, [5,500 described species] (Brusca & Brusca, 2003).
  • Porifera, (Jewell, 1959).


  • Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011. Animal biodiversity: An introduction to higher-level classification and taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 7-12. [Available online]
  • Hooper, J.N.A., R.W.M. Van Soest & A. Pisera. 2011. Phylum Porifera Grant, 1826. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness . Zootaxa 3148: 13–18. [Available online]
  • Reiswig, H.M. & T.M. Frost & A. Ricciardi. 2010. Porifera. [in] J.H. Thorp & A.P. Covich (eds.). Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates, 3rd edition: 91-123.
  • Brusca, R.C. & G.J. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates, 2nd edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts. 936 pp.
  • Van Soest, W.M. & J.N.A. Hooper (eds.). 2002. System Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges 1. 1101 pp.
  • Smith, D.G. 2001. Porifera (Sponges). Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States, 4th edition: 41-60.
  • Jewell, M. 1959. Porifera. [in] W.T. Edmondson (ed.). Ward & Whipple Fresh-Water Biology, 2nd edition: 298-312.

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