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Image from Encylopedia Britannica.
Phylum Porifera (sponges)

Poriferans, commonly known as sponges, are predominantly marine. However, 219 species are known from fresh waters worldwide, and 30 of those are known from North America (Manconi & Pronzato, 2008). Adults are sessile filter-feeders that tend to encrust on hard surfaces.

Zoologically, poriferans are interesting because they lack true tissues, maintaining a cellular grade of organization. Sponges also perform important ecosystem functions such as filtering water and providing habitat/resources for other invertebrates.

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Bibliography

  • Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011. Animal biodiversity: An introduction to higher-level classification and taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 7-12. [Available online]
  • Hooper, J.N.A., R.W.M. Van Soest & A. Pisera. 2011. Phylum Porifera Grant, 1826. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness . Zootaxa 3148: 13–18. [Available online]
  • Reiswig, H.M. & T.M. Frost & A. Ricciardi. 2010. Porifera. [in] J.H. Thorp & A.P. Covich (eds.). Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates, 3rd edition: 91-123.
  • Watermolen, D.J. 2008. Catalog of North American state and regional freshwater sponge references. Miscellaneous Publication Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources PUB-SS-1040. 12 pp. [Available online]
  • Manconi, R. & R. Pronzato. 2008. Global diversity of sponges (Porifera: Spongillina) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595(1): 27-33. [Available online]
  • Annesley, J., J. Jass & D. Watermolen. 2008. Wisconsin freshwater sponge species documented by scanning electron microscopy. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 23(2): 263-272. [Available online]
  • Brusca, R.C. & G.J. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates, 2nd edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts. 936 pp.
  • Van Soest, W.M. & J.N.A. Hooper (eds.). 2002. System Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges 1. 1101 pp.
  • Manconi, R. & R. Pronzato. 2002. Suborder Spongillina subord. nov.: Freshwater Sponges. [in] System Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges 1: 921-1019. [Available online]
  • Smith, D.G. 2001. Porifera (Sponges). Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States, 4th edition: 41-60.
  • Underhill, J.C., W.D. Schmid & D.E. Gilbertson. 1982. Taxonomic Keys to the Common Animals of the North Central States, exclusive of the parasitic worms, terrestrial insects, and birds, 4th edition. 205 pp.
  • Jewell, M. 1959. Porifera. [in] W.T. Edmondson (ed.). Ward & Whipple Fresh-Water Biology, 2nd edition: 298-312.

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Classification of Freshwater Taxa

Only taxa found in North America are listed. Formatting indicates if they are known (to us) from North America, the midwestern states or Wisconsin.

Kingdom Animalia [details]
Subkingdom Parazoa [details]
Phylum Porifera (sponges) [details]
  .   Class Demospongiae [details]
  .    .   Order Haplosclerida [details]
  .    .    .   Suborder Spongillina (freshwater sponges) [details]
  .    .    .    .   Family Metaniidae [details]
  .    .    .    .    .   Genus Corvomeyenia [details]
  .    .    .    .    .    .   Species C. everetti [detail]
  .    .    .    .   Family Spongillidae (freshwater sponges) [details]
  .    .    .    .    .   Genus Anheteromeyenia [details]
  .    .    .    .    .    .   Species A. argyrosperma [detail]
  .    .    .    .    .   Genus Duosclera [details]
  .    .    .    .    .    .   Species D. mackayi (+ D. johanseni) [detail]
  .    .    .    .    .   Genus Ephydatia (+ Meyenia) [details]
  .    .    .    .    .    .   Species E. fluviatilis (+ E. cooperensis), E. muelleri (+ E. heterosclerifera), E. millsii, E. robusta (+ E. subdivisa), E. subtilis
  .    .    .    .    .   Genus Eunapius [details]
  .    .    .    .    .    .   Species E. fragilis, E. igloviformis
  .    .    .    .    .   Genus Heteromeyenia (+ Carterius) [details]
  .    .    .    .    .    .   Species H. tentasperma, H. tubisperma, H. baileyi (+ H. longistylis), H. repens, H. latitenta
  .    .    .    .    .   Genus Pottsiela [details]
  .    .    .    .    .    .   Species P. aspinosa [detail]
  .    .    .    .    .   Genus Racekiela (+ Parameyenia) [details]
  .    .    .    .    .    .   Species R. ryderi (+ R. discoides, + R. conigera), R. biceps
  .    .    .    .    .   Genus Radiospongilla [details]
  .    .    .    .    .    .   Species R. crateriformis, R. cerebellata
  .    .    .    .    .   Genus Spongilla [details]
  .    .    .    .    .    .   Species S. lacustris, S. alba, S. cenota, S. wagneri
  .    .    .    .    .   Genus Trochospongilla (+ Tubella) [details]
  .    .    .    .    .    .   Species T. pennsylvanica, T. horrida, T. leidii
  .    .    .    .    .   Genus Dosilia (+ Asteromeyenia) [details]
  .    .    .    .    .    .   Genus D. radiospiculata, D. palmeri, D. plumosa
  .    .    .    .    .   Genus Corvospongilla [details]
  .    .    .    .    .    .   Species C. becki, C. novaeterrae
  .    .    .    .    .   Genus Stratospongilla [details]
  .    .    .    .    .    .   Species S. penneyi [detail]

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