Page last updated Wed 05 Feb 2020


Use the links to navigate the hierarchy of invertebrate classification.

  Superphylum Lophotrochozoa

Phylum Nemertea (ribbon worms, proboscis worms)

    Class Enopla -- Wisconsin!
    Class Anopla -- North America.
    Class Palaeonemertea

Taxon Information

The Phylum Nemertea has been reported (or is assumed) to occur in fresh waters. This taxon has been reported from Wisconsin.

(These statements were generated automatically from the WInvertebrates database.)

Literature Records

  • Nemertea, "1,200 species" (Zhang, 2011).
  • Nemertea, [900 described species] (Brusca & Brusca, 2003).
  • Nemertea, (Coe, 1959).


  • Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011. Animal biodiversity: An introduction to higher-level classification and taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 7-12. [Available online]
  • Kolasa, J. & S. Tyler. 2010. Flatworms: Turbellarians and Nemerteans. [in] J.H. Thorp & A.P. Covich (eds.). Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates, 3rd edition: 143-161.
  • Sundberg, P. & R. Gibson. 2008. Global diversity of nemerteans (Nemertea) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595: 61-66. [Available online]
  • Watermolen, D.J. 2005. Aquatic and terrestrial flatworm (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria) and ribbon worm (Nemertea) records from Wisconsin. Research/Management Findings, Wisconsin DNR (55). 8 pp.
  • Brusca, R.C. & G.J. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates, 2nd edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts. 936 pp.
  • Smith, D.G. 2001. Nemertea (Proboscis worms). Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States, 4th edition: 109-115.
  • Gibson, R. & J. Moore. 1976. Freshwater nemerteans. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 58: 177-218. [Available online]
  • Coe, W.R. 1959. Nemertea. [in] W.T. Edmondson (ed.). Ward & Whipple Fresh-Water Biology, 2nd edition: 366-367.

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