Page last updated Wed 05 Feb 2020


Image from WInvertebrates.
Phylum Entoprocta (banded moss animals)

The Phylum Entoprocta superficially resemble bryozoans (as well as some cnidarians and protozoans like Vorticella) in that they are minute, sessile tentacle-feeders. Only a single genus is known from North America.

The name “Entoprocta” refers to the position of the anus adjacent to the mouth within the ring of feeding tentacles. This is in contrast to the bryozoans, which also have a U-shaped gut, but the anus is located outside the lophophore. Hence the alternative name for bryozoans, “ectoprocts.” Entoprocts are otherwise built like little protostome invertebrates.

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  • Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011. Animal biodiversity: An introduction to higher-level classification and taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 7-12. [Available online]
  • Wood, T.S. 2010. Bryozoans. [in] J.H. Thorp & A.P. Covich (eds.). Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates, 3rd edition: 437-454.
  • Brusca, R.C. & G.J. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates, 2nd edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts. 936 pp.
  • Wasson, K. 2002. A review of the invertebrate phylum Kamptozoa (Entoprocta) and synopsis of kamptozoan diversity in Australia and New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of Southern Australia 126(1): 1-20. [Available online]
  • Smith, D.G. 2001. Entoprocta (Banded moss animals). Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States, 4th edition: 245-247.
  • Rogick, M.D. 1959. Bryozoa. [in] W.T. Edmondson (ed.). Ward & Whipple Fresh-Water Biology, 2nd edition: 495-507.

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Classification of Freshwater Taxa

Only taxa found in North America are listed. Formatting indicates if they are known (to us) from North America, the midwestern states or Wisconsin.

Kingdom Animalia [details]
Subkingdom Eumetazoa [details]
clade Bilateria [details]
clade Protostomia [details]
clade Spiralia [details]
Superphylum Lophotrochozoa [details]
Phylum Entoprocta (banded moss animals) [details]
  .   Order Coloniales [details]
  .    .   Family Urnatellidae [details]
  .    .    .   Genus Urnatella [details]
  .    .    .    .   Species U. gracilis [detail]

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