Page last updated Wed 05 Feb 2020


Image from Microbial Life Educational Resources.

Use the links to navigate the hierarchy of invertebrate classification.

  Superphylum Ecdysozoa

Phylum Tardigrada (water bears)

    Class Eutardigrada -- midwestern North America.
    Class Heterotardigrada -- midwestern North America.
    Class Mesotardigrada

Taxon Information

The Phylum Tardigrada has been reported (or is assumed) to occur in fresh waters. This taxon has been reported from Wisconsin.

(These statements were generated automatically from the WInvertebrates database.)

Literature Records

  • Tardigrada, "1,157 species" (Zhang, 2011).
  • Tardigrada, [600 described species] (Brusca & Brusca, 2003).
  • Tardigrada, Mendota... Arbor Vitae... Plum... N. Trout... SW. Trout... Boulder... NE. Muskellunge... Pallette... Weber... Starrett... Day... W. Crystal... E. Crystal [beaches, Wisconsin, USA] (Pennak, 1940).


  • Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011. Animal biodiversity: An introduction to higher-level classification and taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 7-12. [Available online]
  • Guidetti, R. & R. Bertolani. 2011. Phylum Tardigrada Doyère, 1840. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 96-97. [Available online]
  • Nelson, D.R., R. Guidetti & L. Rebecchi. 2010. Tardigrada. [in] J.H. Thorp & A.P. Covich (eds.). Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates, 3rd edition: 455-484.
  • Garey, J.R., S.J. McInnes & P.B. Nichols. 2008. Global diversity of tardigrades (Tardigrada) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595: 101-106. [Available online]
  • Guidetti R. & R. Bertolani. 2005. Tardigrade taxonomy: An updated check list of the taxa and a list of characters for their identification. Zootaxa 845: 1-46. [Available online]
  • Brusca, R.C. & G.J. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates, 2nd edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts. 936 pp.
  • Smith, D.G. 2001. Tardigrada (Water bears). Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States, 4th edition: 227-243.
  • Marcus, E. 1959. Tardigrada. [in] W.T. Edmondson (ed.). Ward & Whipple Fresh-Water Biology, 2nd edition: 508-521.
  • Pennak, R.W. 1940. Ecology of the microscopic Metazoa inhabiting the sandy beaches of some Wisconsin lakes. Ecological Monographs 10(4): 537-615. [Available online]

Student Essays

Web Pages

Site managed by Daniel L. Graf @ University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point