Page last updated Wed 05 Feb 2020


Use the links to navigate the hierarchy of invertebrate classification.

  Superphylum Ecdysozoa

Phylum Nematomorpha (horsehair worms, gordian worms)

    Class Gordioida -- Wisconsin!
    Class Nectonematoida

Taxon Information

The Phylum Nematomorpha has been reported (or is assumed) to occur in fresh waters. This taxon has been reported from Wisconsin.

(These statements were generated automatically from the WInvertebrates database.)

Literature Records

  • Nematomorpha, "351 species" (Zhang, 2011).
  • Nematomorpha, [Africa, Asia, Australia, China, Europe, India, Japan, Madagascar, Malaysia, New Zealand, North America, Pacific Islands, South and MesoAmerica; 326 total species worldwide] (Poinar et al., 2010).
  • Nematomorpha, [230 described species] (Brusca & Brusca, 2003).


  • Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011. Animal biodiversity: An introduction to higher-level classification and taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 7-12. [Available online]
  • Poinar, G.O., jr. 2010. Nematoda and Nematomorpha. [in] J.H. Thorp & A.P. Covich (eds.). Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates, 3rd edition: 237-276.
  • Poinar, G., jr. 2008. Global diversity of hairworms (Nematomorpha: Gordiaceae) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595: 79-83. [Available online]
  • Brusca, R.C. & G.J. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates, 2nd edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts. 936 pp.
  • Smith, D.G. 2001. Nematomorpha (Horsehair worms, gordian worms). Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States, 4th edition: 217-226.
  • Watermolen, D.J. & G.L. Haen. 1994. Horsehair worms (Phylum Nematomorpha) in Wisconsin, with notes on their occurrence in the Great Lakes. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 9(1): 7-11. [Available online]

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