Page last updated Wed 05 Feb 2020


Use the links to navigate the hierarchy of invertebrate classification.

  Superphylum Lophotrochozoa

Phylum Bryozoa (+ Ectoprocta) (moss animals)

    Class Gymnolaemata -- midwestern North America.
    Class Phylactolaemata -- midwestern North America.
    Class Stenolaemata

Taxon Information

The Phylum Bryozoa has been reported (or is assumed) to occur in fresh waters. This taxon has been reported from Wisconsin.

(These statements were generated automatically from the WInvertebrates database.)

Literature Records

  • Bryozoa, "10,941 species" (Zhang, 2011).
  • Ectoprocta, [4,500 described species] (Brusca & Brusca, 2003).
  • Ectoprocta, (Rogick, 1959).


  • Bock, P.E. & D.P. Gordon. 2013. Phylum Bryozoa Ehrenberg, 1831. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness (Addenda 2013) . Zootaxa 3703(1): 067–074. [Available online]
  • Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011. Animal biodiversity: An introduction to higher-level classification and taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 7-12. [Available online]
  • Wood, T.S. 2010. Bryozoans. [in] J.H. Thorp & A.P. Covich (eds.). Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates, 3rd edition: 437-454.
  • Massard, J.A. & G. Geimer. 2008. Global diversity of bryozoans (Bryozoa or Ectoprocta) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595: 93-99. [Available online]
  • Brusca, R.C. & G.J. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates, 2nd edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts. 936 pp.
  • Smith, D.G. 2001. Ectoprocta (Moss animals). Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States, 4th edition: 249-268.
  • Rogick, M.D. 1959. Bryozoa. [in] W.T. Edmondson (ed.). Ward & Whipple Fresh-Water Biology, 2nd edition: 495-507.

Web Pages

Site managed by Daniel L. Graf @ University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point