Page last updated Wed 05 Feb 2020


Image from WikiSpecies.

Use the links to navigate the hierarchy of invertebrate classification.

  Phylum Bryozoa

Class Phylactolaemata

    Order Plumatellida -- midwestern North America.

Taxon Information

The Class Phylactolaemata has been reported (or is assumed) to occur in fresh waters. This taxon has been reported from midwestern states of North America.

(These statements were generated automatically from the WInvertebrates database.)

Literature Records

  • Phylactolaemata, [North America] (Wood, 2010).
  • Phylactolaemata, [Palearctic, Nearctic, Neotropical, Afrotropical, Oriental, Australasian, Pacific; 69 species in 16 genera worldwide, 28 Nearctic species in 9 genera] (Massard & Geimer, 2008).
  • Phylactolaemata, (Smith, 2001).
  • Phylactolaemata, (Rogick, 1959).


  • Wood, T.S. 2010. Bryozoans. [in] J.H. Thorp & A.P. Covich (eds.). Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates, 3rd edition: 437-454.
  • Massard, J.A. & G. Geimer. 2008. Global diversity of bryozoans (Bryozoa or Ectoprocta) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595: 93-99. [Available online]
  • Smith, D.G. 2001. Ectoprocta (Moss animals). Pennak's Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States, 4th edition: 249-268.
  • Rogick, M.D. 1959. Bryozoa. [in] W.T. Edmondson (ed.). Ward & Whipple Fresh-Water Biology, 2nd edition: 495-507.

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